During this time central government again collapsed in Egypt, with part of the country being occupied by the "Hyksos" a group from the Levant (an area that encompasses modern-day Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria).
The country's ancient rulers are referred to today as "pharaohs," although in ancient times they each used a series of names as part of a royal titular, wrote Ronald Leprohon, an Egyptology professor at the University of Toronto, in his book "The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2013).Egypt may have been used to reach Asia in some of these migrations.Villages dependent on agriculture began to appear in Egypt about 7,000 years ago, and the civilization’s earliest written inscriptions date back about 5,200 years; they discuss the early rulers of Egypt.He lived over 5,000 years ago, and while ancient writers sometimes credited him as being the first pharaoh of a united Egypt we know today that this is not true — there was a group of Egyptian rulers that predated Menes.Scholars sometimes refer to these pre-Menes rulers as being part of a "dynasty zero." Dynasties 3-6 date from roughly 2650–2150 B. and are often lumped into a time period called the "Old Kingdom" by modern-day scholars. (a time period that encompassed dynasties 7-10 and part of the 11) the central government in Egypt was weak and the country was often controlled by different regional leaders.The rulers of the 25 dynasty were from Nubia, an area now located in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Alexander the Great drove the Persians out of Egypt and incorporated the country into the Macedonian Empire.