These early rulers include Iry-Hor, who, according to recently discovered inscriptions, founded Memphis, a city that served as Egypt’s capital for much of its history.When and how Egypt was united is unclear and is a matter of debate among archaeologists and historians.Dynasties 12, 13, as well as part of the 11 are often called the "Middle Kingdom" by scholars and lasted from ca. Among the surviving texts is the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, which includes a variety of medical treatments that modern-day medical doctors have hailed as being advanced for their time.Dynasties 14-17 are often lumped into the "second intermediate period" by modern-day scholars.The cut-off hands may have been presented by soldiers to a ruler in exchange for gold. This time period takes place after the Hyksos had been driven out of Egypt by a series of Egyptian rulers and the country was reunited. [Photos: More Than 40 Tombs Discovered in Upper Egypt] Dynasties 21-24 (a period from ca. C.) are often called the "third intermediate period" by modern-day scholars.Scholars often refer to dynasties 18-20 as encompassing the "New Kingdom," a period that lasted ca. Perhaps the most famous archaeological site from this time period is the Valley of the Kings, which holds the burial sites of many Egyptian rulers from this time period, including that of Tutankhamun (reign ca. The central government was sometimes weak during this time period and the country was not always united.
Egypt’s history has traditionally been divided into 30 (sometimes 31) dynasties.During this time pyramid building techniques were developed and the pyramids of Giza were built. Why the Old Kingdom collapsed is a matter of debate among scholars, with recent research indicating that drought and climate change played a significant role.During this time other cities and civilizations in the Middle East also collapsed, with evidence at archaeological sites indicating that a period of drought and arid climate hit sites across the Middle East. At the start of this dynasty, a ruler named Mentuhotep II (who reigned until about 2000 B. Pyramid building resumed in Egypt, and a sizable number of texts documenting the civilization’s literature and science were recorded.The civilization has always been strongly connected with other parts of the world, bringing in and exporting goods, religions, food, people and ideas.At times ancient Egypt ruled territory outside the modern-day country's border, controlling territory in what is now Sudan, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Palestine.The burial of Tutankhamun — in which his penis was mummified erect — is but one example of how important fertility was in the rituals and beliefs of the ancient Egyptians.